David C Cox
National Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, U.K
Deterministic implantation of single ions is currently of high interest for quantum technology applications. We have recently commissioned two instruments to carry out deterministic implantation across a range of ion species. These systems located in the UK National Ion Beam Centre (UKNIBC) are bespoke focussed ion beam systems designed specifically for the task of deterministic implantation and comprise one, which has a liquid metal ion source, and the second, a duoplasmatron source. Both systems use a pulsed, low current beam of ions and contain Wein filter mass/charge filtering; neutral filtering and secondary electron detection to determine when an implantation event has occurred. They operate an EBL-like strategy for precise location of the ion pulse at the desired locations and with resolutions on the same scale as the ion straggle.
While we have now run across the two systems a range of sources such as In, BI, C, N, and Ge, the task ahead is to establish stable and reliable sources for additional species (for example rare earths) of particular interest to the quantum research community and we have an ongoing sources development program to expand the range of available species Here we also present single ion implant detection results from the single ion implanter where we study detection efficiencies for different ion species/substrate combinations.